The second revolution was a combination of the Enlightenment (1715 to 1789) and the Industrial Revolution (1760 to between 1820/40). There were a few interesting and significant events happening which I perceive began to drive each other. There is not enough space here to fully delineate them but certainly, the invention of the beam engine, The Spinning Jenny, The Loom, James’ Watt’s engine, The printing press.
However, once the new branch of physics of Thermodynamics (a knotty subject of there ever was one.) fuelled automation of the Cotton Mills it brought a lot of money to my neck of the woods, Lancashire where at one point the port of Liverpool was the largest in the world. Now we, the Uk were importing our cottom from American rather than India. So great was Lancashire’s re;lience on the Southern States of the US’s cotton that when the civil war happened, we had a ‘Lancashire faminine’. Families starved when the Unionists stopped up and blockaded the Confederate Ports.
The Industrial Revolution running on the back of the enlightenment brought a lot of people a lot of money but it was based on the labour of a huge mass of people were were actual ersatz slaves. This is the revolution of the throat chakra, the chakra of communication and clear thought. Rational intelligence. The move away from the unknown to the scientific model. No longer would we hunt witches. There is no such thing as magic. It’s just a load of nonsense. This is untrue of course and like all great ideas, that there is a concept of the other which is not covered by the very rich Church started to become lost. Not entirely though. An oral knowledge of witches, magic and superstition still persisted.
That something might not have been ‘quite right’ in society began with the persecution of witches and of course, the witchcraft trials. The peak of the trials was between 1560 and 1630 with the decline taken between 1650-1750. The Trails were in my view, the scapegoating of huge swathes of the largely poor and largely female ‘witches’. Men were also prosecuted but not on such a scale and even children were not immune. Occasionally monied landowners would get ‘fingered’ such as the case of Nuttell in the Lancashire Witch trials.
Newton and the age of the enlightenment are very significant events. The Industrial revolution was catastrophic in many ways due to the sheer cost of life, accidents and extreme poverty and degradation.
The great draw of ostensibly some wealth by employment in the mills, as opposed to say farming, really was the devil singing a very lovely tune. Easier to weave a shuttle than tend a garden. More money too.
People always need clothes (and plates too but that’s a different matter). Suddenly you get an explosion of income. It was so good in fact that an old friend of my know deceased aunt said at her wake.’ if you didn’t like your employer, you could walk out of a job in the morning, go to another mill and be employed there.’
That was market forces. And it so thusly was for decades. Certainly from the 30s (general strike at al.) until the 50s
This was the Blue Revolution.